The Green Land Greenland in the Arctic.

The Green Land Greenland in the Arctic.
The Arctic is defined as the part of the globe above Latitude 66.5 (The Arctic circle). Besides water it contains land masses and islands of Russia, Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and the islands Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen and Svalbard.
The ice in the atctic consists of sea-ice, pack-ice, drift-ice, glaciers and land-ice. (Greenland consists of at least three islands, connected by a thick layer of permanent ice.)
As late as 1390 A.D the land ice over Greenland was significantly smaller, at least in its southern parts. Greenland was an exporter of butter and hard cheese, besides dried fish, (mostly Cod),.. ”Walrus ivory”, noted the eleventh-century Arab historian al-Biruni, is ”the tooth of a fish, one cubit long, which the Volga Bulgars [a Turkic people] bring from the northern seas … [and from there it is sent] to Mecca … and to Egypt” to be made into knife and sword handles for nobles and rulers.” ….. ”Gyrfalcons from Iceland and Greenland were sent to the royal mews in Norway and later to Denmark and used by rulers as gifts of state.”
In 1224 King Haakon IV of Norway, anxious to forge an alliance with England, sent King Henry III 13 gyrfalcons together with ”many walrus tusks,” and in 1262 he sent a delegation with many gyrfalcons to the bey of Tunis.” ……. ”
In liking of falcons, as in other wealth, no western monarch could match the 13th century Mongol emperor Kublai Khan. When he traveled, Marco Polo wrote, he was accompanied by ”full 10,000 falconers, who carry with them a vast number of gyrfalcons, peregrine falcons and sakers,” and in his silk-and-sable-lined private pavilion the khan ”always carried with him 12 of his best gyrfalcons.” (1)
”Most of the Viking expansion took place during what scientist refer to as the dimatic optimum of the Medieval Warm Period dated ca, A.D. 800 to 1200 (Jones 1986: McGovern 1991); a general term for warm periods that reached their optima at different times across the North Atlantic (Groves and Switsur 1991). During this time the mean annual temperature for southem Greenland was 1 to 3°C higher than today. Page 40 Julie Megan Ross, Paleoethnobotanical Investigation of Garden Under Sandet,
There were in excess of 3000 inhabitants on Greenland during that period. The Catholic Church has ample documentation up to 1551. Because of the cooling trend some of the settlers were evacuated to the American mainland in 1435. Where they ended up is not well known.
In the years 1000-1300 A.D wnen the settlers lived in what is called “Västerbygden” there were large meadows and even forests on Greenland, and open water as far north as Ruin Island, which is locatd in north-western Greenland(78 deg 31’N., 70 deg 55’W). The trade route is listed on artifacts such as maps as late as 1490. This proves the climate was then significantly warmer than now
There was a farm settlement abandoned around 1350, due to permafrost when the beginning of the little ice age ensued. The name of the settlement was “Gården under sanden (abbreviated GUS)”. It has recently been excavated since the permafrost is again moving northward.

Source: “A Waterlogged Norse Farm Site. Western Settlement. Greenland (Kaiaallit Nunaata), University of Alberta, Department of Anthropology Edmonton. Alberta Fa11 1997

How does this square with the famous ”Hockey stick” of temperature rise that was prominently displayed by Gore et. al. a decade ago or so to justify global warming. It has a little dip for the little ice age (the 1600’s), but no rise for 900-1300.
The argument is that they mean global temperatures, not just the temperatures in the North Atlantic. But the Mayan and Inca civilization belie that. They were able to farm at higher elevations in those days than what is possible now. And where were those temperature measurement stations anyhow?

A closer observation of that chart a decade later shows how wrong they were, since we are experiencing a cooling trend since then. The surface station temperatures keep going up, but that is due mostly to the proximity of the weather stations to concrete runways, streets, developments, etc. Some of the control stations placed in remote areas are themselves being developed now, which throws off these measurements. A better analysis can be obtained from the NASA atmospheric data. This temperature difference widens year by year and is now 0.7 Degree Celsius. (NASA is cooler)
So the verdict on “Global Warming” is still out. They changed the alarm to “Climate Change.”
If anything is to be observed the last 50 years is the lack of climate change.
What has changed is the rapid exhaustion of drinkable water in large parts of the world, the poisoning of the water supplies, the general air pollution, and the exhaustion of cheaply minable minerals.
The cutting down of the rain forests is disastrous, not because they are a great CO2 sink, but because they prevent desertification of the land mass, and they create clouds which have a significant cooling and watering effect on the earth. The rain forests are their own eco-system, where CO2 absorbed in the canopy is released under the canopy by the fungus, bacteria and animals; rotting, fermenting and digesting the biomass produced.
It is my contention that the CO2 contribution to the greenhouse effect has been overestimated by a factor of 3 (or so). However, if you are a scientist on the government payroll it is not possible to question those assumptions. The cloud effect should be correspondingly larger in the equations.
If this is correct then the major threat to the planet is desertification and drying up of the water supplies, not the creation of CO2.
The Global Governance of that would be to prevent developing countries from cutting down their rain forests, except in areas with excessive rainfall.

Take a look at and others by UN et al presented arctic temperatures?
Where were the measurements taken from? Besides Hammerfest, Tromsö, Narvik and maybe Svalbard and Iceland, where were the weather stations?Are we dealing with a lot of extrapolated data? Inquiring minds want to know.

© Johansson Inger E January 2003. (Sent to sci.archaeology Sat, 11 Jan 2003 18:58:59 GMT)
The Vikings and Arabs were the master traders of the medieval world, and trade routes were long, complex and arduous. The Vikings brought polar bears, walrus ivory, gyrfalcons and narwhal tusks from Iceland and northern Greenland.
Some of these falcons came from Greenland and Iceland They were transported over the Atlantic, sent across central Europe and Russia to Armenia and from there brought by Tartar envoys to China as tribute to the mighty khan. . ”


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